The two most common gum diseases are gingivitis and periodontitis. Gingivitis involves minor inflammation of the gum tissue and can be cured relatively easily. It usually results from poor dental hygiene. Although gingivitis is usually painless, the first sign can be bleeding gums after brushing or flossing. Some patients also mention red or swollen gums. Although gingivitis is not a dangerous condition, it should not be ignored: without proper treatment, it generally leads to periodontitis.
Periodontitis is caused by specific bacteria that form inside the periodontal pockets and gradually destroy the tissue surrounding the tooth. Detected early, periodontitis is relatively easy to treat. At more advanced stages (i.e., deep periodontal pockets, moving teeth, etc.), treatment can be more difficult. For that reason, gum health must never be neglected, and you should see a dental professional if you notice any of the signs mentioned.